La scelta razionale: un problema di filosofia della mente e della neuroscienza

JUAN JOSÉ SANGUINETI

Sommario:1. Il problema e la metodologia per affrontarlo. 2. La scelta: l’io in azione. 3. Le cause della scelta. 4. Il “circuito” della scelta. 5. Scelta e libertà. 6. Libertà, amore, sentimenti. 7. Scelta e cervello. 8. Conclusioni.

Abstract: Cognitive science, and especially neuroscience, currently addresses the philosophical problem of human free choice. This article proposes addressing the problem with the methodology of a confrontation between a phenomenological analysis of human decisions and some main points of philosophy of mind and of neuroscience. The author offers a proposal for the meaning of a 'free' decision, within the context of intentional actions. While avoiding dualism, which is linked to a pure opposition between a disincarnate act of will and a merely physiological account of what is going on in the brain, the author proposes a unitary conception of intentional cognitive/emotional circuits both in animals and in human beings. Neural activations are just a dimension of those circuits and need to be analyzed at the intentional level. Truth and good as a permanent background in human intentional powers provide the root of free choices, as essentially different from animal choices.