Ontologia formale e teoria della negazione dialettica nella prima fenomenologia di M. Scheler. Un percorso di studio dalla fenomenologia alla Teoria delle categorie
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the research program of formale Ontologie developed by M. Scheler before his last 1922 theoretical shift. Scheler’s theory of dialectical negation will be also investigated. In regard to the first topic, the focus will be on the complex “architecture” of Scheler’s formal ontology, deepened within a theoretical framework of “Realontologie”: integrated into this framework, formal ontology becomes a basic tool for building phenomenological realisms. In regard to the second topic, the focus will be on the close theoretical relationship between Scheler’s mature suggestion of a phenomenological “objective dialectics” essence-being and the formal ontological foundation of a logical theory of a “pluralistic” dialectical negation, that is, dually, an intuitionistic, hence paracomplete, and a paraconsistent negation. Finally, it will be introduced the basics of a semiotic interpretation of Scheler’s phenomenological formal ontology within the rigorous framework of Category Theory (TC). This interpretation “strengthens” the traditional “(inter)subjective” side of phenomenological analysis (I-we talk) with a new ─ in the application suggested ─ in the “third person” “objective” side (O-talk) of semiotic analysis, that shares with the first one a common pre-logical and ante-predicative level of inquiry.
Keywords: Formal Ontology, Phenomenological Realism, Dialectics, Duality, Intuitionistic Negation, Paraconsistent Negation, Category Theory.