L’antropologia di K. Wojtyla come sintesi del pensiero classico e della modernità

Antonio Malo

Sommario: 1. Il punto di partenza dell’antropologia wojtyliana: l’analisi dell’esperienza. 2. Il metodo transfenomenico. 3. Il superamento del soggettivismo e dell’oggettivismo. 4. La struttura persona-atto. 4.1. Intenzionalità e trascendenza. 4.2. La persona come ipostasi dinamica. 5. La perfezione della persona: il dovere della verità. 6. Conclusione.

Abstract: Convinced that anthropology constitutes the nucleus of K. Wojtyla's thought, the author attempts to discover what kind of anthropology is at the basis of Wojtyla's philosophical writings and the implications of that anthropology. The analysis of the basic structures of Wojtyla's anthropology (the experience of that which occurs and that of action, the structure of the person-act, the transcendence of the person in truth, gift, etc.) leads the author to hold that Wojtyla's philosophy can be considered a coherent personalism since the person who acts is not just the method (the conscience of the action), but also the object of study and, above all, the end, that is, to know and to make known to the person his special dignity. Regarding the contribution of Wojytla's anthropology, the author identifies two central themes: the relationship between person and act, and relationality. Regarding the former, Wojtyla effects a synthesis of metaphysics of being and phenomenology: the person is not relative to his acts, because he is a suppositum; nonetheless, the person is in close relationship to his acts. If it were not for these acts the person could not even know himself as subject and could not perfect himself as a person. Regarding the latter, Wojtyla sustains that the person is not person in the singular but in the plural, since each person is in relation with all the others, and this is shown from the phenomena of participation, solidarity, and, above all, donation. The author concludes by sustaining that the multiplicity and the original relationality of the  person is one of the aspects of Wojtyla's anthropology that would be worthy of further study.